Application Examples

This page lists application examples for PLECS, the RT Box and Embedded Code Generation. Before opening a model for the RT Box or for Embedded Code Generation in PLECS, please install the corresponding target support packages (RT Box, TI C2000). The .zip files contain models for both PLECS Blockset and Standalone.

The filters below will help you navigate through the collection of application examples.

Title Description Files PDF Video
PLECS: Boost Converter with PFC and Thermal Model

This demonstration shows a 300 W switched-mode power supply with a thermal model for the PFC and rectifier stages. The AC input voltage may vary between 85 and 265 Vrms and the controlled output voltage is 390 V DC. The simulation combines the electrical power circuit, the control with a standard IC and the thermal behavior of the semiconductors. Component loss descriptions are included to allow the thermal behavior of the MOSFET, boost diode and full bridge rectifier to be investigated. A Steady-State Analysis is also setup to determine the final operating temperatures within seconds.

Tags: #Thermal, #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Bridgeless Boost PFC Converter

This demonstration shows a single-phase AC/DC bridgeless power factor correction (PFC) boost rectifier circuit. The bridgeless PFC topology replaces a conventional two-stage PFC circuit, and in doing so, provides higher converter efficiency. A nested controller with an outer voltage loop and an inner current loop is used.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Buck Converter Operating in Boundary Conduction Mode

This demonstration shows a buck converter with an on-line parameter tuning technique for predictive peak current mode control operating in Boundary Conduction Mode (BCM). Sensor error in the voltage measurement and parameter deviation in the estimated inductance are modeled.

Tags:
#Controls
#Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Buck Converter with Analog Controls

This demonstration shows a buck converter with a resistive load. The analog controller is implemented in PLECS with electrical circuit components; the pulse generation is performed by comparing the controller output voltage against generated a sawtooth signal.

Tags:
#Controls
#Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Buck Converter with Analysis Tools

This demonstration shows how to perform a Steady-State Analysis and use small-signal analysis to obtain different open-loop transfer functions for an unregulated buck converter. The transfer function can be calculated by performing an AC Sweep or Impulse Response Analysis, which both inherently first execute a Steady-State Analysis, or alternatively, using the Multitone Analysis, which does not execute a Steady-State Analysis.

Tags:
#Controls, #Tools
#Power-Supplies

PLECS: Buck Converter with Constant On-Time Control

The demonstration shows a buck converter with cascaded voltage and current controller. The current control is based on a constant on-time and implemented using the PLECS State Machine block.

Tags:
#Controls, #Tools
#Power-Supplies

PLECS: Buck Converter with Digital Controls

This demonstration shows a buck converter with a digital controller implementation. The controller block uses a configurable subsystem that can be toggled between a continuous and discrete proportional integral derivative (PID) control scheme. By looking under the mask (Ctrl+U) of the PID Controller block, two further masked subsystems contain the S- and Z-domain controllers.

Tags:
#Controls, #Tools
#Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Buck Converter with Loop Gain Analysis

This demonstration shows how to obtain the loop gain of a voltage-regulated buck converter with a resistive load. This can be done by performing an AC Sweep Analysis, which inherently first executes a Steady-State Analysis, or alternatively, using Multitone Analysis, which does not execute a Steady- State Analysis.

Tags:
#Controls, #Tools
#Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Buck Converter with Parameter Sweep

This demonstration is based on the demo model "Buck Converter with Analog Controls" in the PLECS demo models library. It performs a sweep of the inductor value in a simulation script. This demo model is particularly useful to implement any kind of parameter sweep in other models as the basic structure serves as a good starting point.

Tags:
#Controls, #Tools
#Power-Supplies

PLECS: Buck Converter with Peak Current Control

This demonstration shows a current-controlled buck converter with a resistive load. The PLECS Peak Current Controller block is used to implement peak current mode control and a voltage control loop is provided in both analog and digital implementations.

Tags:
#Controls, #Tools
#Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Buck Converter with Stray IGBT Tail Current

This demonstration shows a simple unregulated buck converter that models the impacts of stray inductances and an IGBT with tail current. The model uses the non-ideal components "IGBT with limited di/dt" and "Diode with reverse recovery" from the PLECS library.

Tags:
#Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Cuk Converter with Integrated Magnetics

This model highlights the PLECS magnetic domain components using a complex isolated Ćuk converter which is capable of zero-ripple operation. The magnetic circuit consists of two opposing E-cores spaced by air gaps, where two chokes and the transformer are combined into a single structure modeled as three separate permeances. These permeances are implemented using the Saturable Core component, and the flux magnitudes through each leg as well as a stray path can be monitored. During the simulation, the core material saturates leading to spikes in the output current.

Tags: #Magnetics, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Cycloconverter

This demonstration shows a cycloconverter with a three-phase RL load. Each phase consists of two back-to-back connected line-frequency thyristor converters, for a total of 36 devices. The PLECS three-phase Thyristor Rectifier and Thyristor Inverter blocks are available for this purpose. Three three-phase star-star transformers are also used, each with a 1:1 turns winding ratio. In this model, a 5 kV, 50 Hz AC input is converted to a 6.67 kV, 10 Hz AC output.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Dual Active Bridge

This demonstration shows a dual active bridge (DAB) converter with an input voltage of 95 VDC, an output voltage of 380 VDC, and a switching frequency of 250 kHz. This model contains a transformer that is implemented in two configurations: as an ideal model and a more detailed version that includes saturation behavior modeled using the PLECS magnetic domain. Additionally, the thermal behavior of Wolfspeed Silicon Carbide MOSFETs for the primary and secondary side bridges, is included using the PLECS thermal domain. After a system startup transient settles, a load step change from 1 kW to 2 kW is simulated.

Tags: #Thermal, #Magnetics, #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Flyback Converter with Analog Controls

This example demonstrates a three-output flyback converter with closed-loop control of one output. Voltage regulation is applied to the low voltage (5V) output winding using an ideal shunt voltage sensor and PI controller. A load step is performed on this winding to validate the performance of the controller.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Flyback Converter with Magnetics

This demonstration shows a DC-DC flyback converter operating in discontinuous conduction mode with two outputs. The model combines the electrical power circuit with a special magnetic circuit for the flyback transformer and a discrete controller regulating the higher output voltage. A load step is performed on each output winding and the BH loop of the transformer is available to monitor the saturation behavior.

Tags: #Magnetics, #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Flying Capacitor DC-DC Converter

This demonstration illustrates a flying capacitor (FC) DC/DC converter (also known as a multicell, imbricated cell or switched-capacitor converter), which is a type of multilevel converter. This model is designed to step down the input voltage to an output voltage that can be configured by adjusting the duty cycle of the modulator. The multicell network has been implemented in PLECS using a modular subsystem concept, where a dynamically-sized chain of components is connected using wires and multiplexers, so the user can configure the number of cells at the top level, without drawing additional circuitry.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Flying Capacitor Single-Phase Inverter

This model shows a flying capacitor (FC) single-phase full bridge voltage source inverter (VSI). The multicell network has been implemented in PLECS using a modular subsystem concept, where a dynamically-sized chain of components is connected using wires and multiplexers, so the user can configure the number of cells at the top level, without drawing additional circuitry. Changing the initial capacitor voltages and running the simulation will show the self-balancing nature of the topology as the capacitor voltages will migrate to their balanced state.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Half-Bridge LLC Converter with Analysis Tools

This demonstration shows a half-bridge LLC resonant converter operated with open-loop and closed-loop frequency control using a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). Further, Multitone Analysis is used in the open-loop system to design the compensator and to check the stability of the closed-loop system.

Tags: #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Inverter with C-Script-Based PWM Modulator

This demonstration shows an ideal MOSFET inverter that is controlled by a custom PWM scheme. The modulation logic is implemented as a state machine using the PLECS C-Script block. Minimum switch on-time and dead time parameters can be configured for observing timing effects on the simulated waveforms.

Tags: #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: LLC Variable Frequency Resonant Converter

This demonstration shows an isolated DC/DC resonant LLC converter operated under frequency control. The converter sees zero-voltage switching (ZVS) operation and a simple soft start scheme. The transformer is implemented using a Saturable Core element from the Magnetic domain. Also, thermal descriptions are assigned to the MOSFETs and output diodes so that junction temperatures and losses can be monitored.

Tags: #Thermal, #Magnetics, #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Multiphase Synchronous Buck Converter

This demo model shows a configurable multiphase synchronous buck converter with a load step. The number of phases is dynamically configured by the user, so no additional circuitry needs to be drawn. The modulator also uses phase shift logic to properly account for the number of phases.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Neutral-Point Clamped Converter

This demonstration illustrates a neutral-point clamped (NPC), three-level voltage-source inverter. This model is designed to deliver power to a 50 Hz, 130 VRMS grid from a dynamic DC source. The 3-Level Half Bridge power module components are used, which each implement a single leg for an NPC converter. A nested controller and phase-locked loop (PLL) are shown to regulate out a perturbation caused by a step change in current from the PV array in approximately 50 ms.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Phase Shift DC-DC Converter with Integrated Magnetics

This demonstration shows a phase shift DC-DC converter with a magnetically integrated current doubler. The combined transformer and output inductors are implemented in the PLECS Magnetic Domain. Thermal descriptions are assigned to the MOSFET switches in the full bridge as well as the output diodes so that junction temperatures and losses can be monitored.

Tags: #Thermal, #Magnetics, #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Plant Code Generation: Three-Phase 6-Pulse Thyristor Converter

This example demonstrates PLECS Standalone code generation capabilities for physical systems including electrical circuits. In this model ANSI-C code is generated to represent a three-phase thyristor (SCR) rectifier circuit. The model performance using generated C code is benchmarked against the baseline system using native PLECS components. Code generation for physical systems is essential to model physical plants in a real-time simulation environment, such as with the RT Box family of simulators. Please note that in order to enable code generation and run this simulation, you will need a PLECS Coder license.

Tags: #Tools, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Power Supply Compensator Analysis

This demonstration analyzes the performance of Type 2 and Type 3 analog compensators used in power supply units (PSUs). The analyzed PSU is a buck converter with modeled-in inductor and capacitor non-idealities. The role of the capacitor and its effective series resistance (ESR) on the plant zero and poles is discussed. Furthermore, the compensators’ performance is analyzed with respect to the phase margin, system bandwidth, and rate of change in gain at the cross-over frequency, using the PLECS Analysis Tools.

Tags: #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Series Capacitor Buck Converter

This demonstration shows a two-phase series capacitor buck converter circuit with constant on-time control for a 12 V input point of load (POL) voltage-regulator application. This topology automatically balances inductor currents without any current sensing circuits or load-sharing control loops. The practical limit of the output voltage may be one-fifth the input voltage.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Single-Phase 2-Pulse Thyristor Converter

This demonstration shows a single-phase full-wave thyristor (SCR) converter with a 325 V, 50 Hz AC voltage rectified and applied to an RL load. Changing the firing angle influences the magnitude of the output signals.

Tags: #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Single-Phase Active Filter

This example demonstrates a single-phase diode rectifier with a shunt active filter circuit. A 220 V, 50 Hz residential utility supplies a 20 Ω DC load via a full-wave diode rectifier resulting in source current rich in harmonic content. The shunt active filter consists of a separate voltage source inverter (VSI) that provides dynamic compensation due to its controllability. A Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) is deployed for grid phase sensing and a simple hysteresis controller is used for the VSI.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Single-Phase Battery Charger

This demonstration shows a grid-connected battery charger with cascaded AC/DC and DC/DC converters. The AC/DC converter uses an interleaved boost converter regulated by a digital PI controller to achieve power factor correction (PFC) and maintain the DC bus voltage at 300VDC. The DC/DC converter is based on a phase-shifted resonant converter and designed to provide a maximum 120VDC output at a power rating of 1.4kW. It has components from both the thermal and magnetic domains.

Tags: #Thermal, #Magnetics, #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Single-Phase Diode Rectifier with PFC

This example shows a single-phase diode rectifier with power factor correction (PFC). The rectifier draws from a 325 V, 60 Hz AC source and produces an output of 450 V DC at the load. The configurable controller has two implementations that tradeoff complexity and reduced distortion with increased ripple amplitude.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Space Vector Control of a Boost System

This example model demonstrates space vector control of a three-phase boost-type rectifier. The Space Vector PWM block included with PLECS is implemented using a C-Script block. The code-based implementation can be viewed to study the definition of the switching matrices, reference vector magnitude and angle calculations, sector detection logic, and calculation of relative on-times.

Tags: #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Swiss Rectifier with Digital Controller

This demonstration shows a Swiss Rectifier (SR) with an output power of 5 kW and load step. The SR is a unidirectional, three-phase, buck-type, AC-DC converter with power factor correction. Both a “minimal injection current ripple” switching strategy and “minimized dc inductor current ripple” switching strategy are available.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Three-Level Boost PFC Converter

This demonstration presents a single-phase three-level boost power factor correction (PFC) converter. As compared to the traditional boost PFC, the converter power density and efficiency can be significantly improved, and design costs can be reduced for high power and/or high voltage applications. The demo model shows an example power stage that converts single-phase 60 Hz, 120 V AC (rms) to 350 V DC.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Three-Phase 6-Pulse Thyristor Converter

This example demonstrates a feedback-controlled, three-phase, grid-connected thyristor (SCR) rectifier. The control scheme first ramps up the output DC current from 0 to 10 A and then steps it up to 25 A. A Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) detects the phase angle of the three-phase supply voltage and PI controller regulates the DC current.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Three-Phase T-Type Inverter

This demonstration presents a three-phase T-type inverter for grid-tie applications with thermal descriptions of SiC MOSFETs included. This model exhibits how the device selection, controller parameters, and modulation approach influence the thermal performance of the inverter. By leveraging analysis tools and simulation scripts, the inverter performance is studied under several different operating conditions to ensure the system behaves safely and efficiently.

Tags: #Thermal, #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Three-Phase Voltage Source Inverter

This model shows a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) system designed to achieve a power rating of 10 kW. Three different Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) schemes are presented for controlling the VSI output: Sine PWM, Space Vector (SV) PWM, and Hysteresis PWM. The harmonics generated by each modulation strategy are compared.

Tags: #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Totem-Pole Bridgeless Boost PFC Converter

This demonstration shows a single-phase AC/DC totem-pole bridgeless power factor correction (PFC) boost rectifier circuit. The totem-pole PFC topology replaces a conventional two-stage PFC circuit, and in doing so, provides higher converter efficiency. A nested controller with an outer voltage loop and an inner current loop is used.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Two Stage LED Driver

This demonstration shows the design of a two-stage LED driver circuit consisting of a boost-PFC for AC/DC conversion followed by a flyback converter for DC/DC conversion. The first stage provides a near unity power factor and a low total harmonic distortion (THD), while the second DC/DC stage is used to provide a tight regulation of the output. The controllers in both these cases have been tuned analytically using the K-factor method. The LED load is represented by a non-linear V-I curve obtained from the forward current characteristic curve of an actual device.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Vienna Rectifier with Hysteresis Controller

This demonstration shows a Vienna Rectifier with an output voltage of 700 V and an output power of 12.25 kW. The controls are modeled as cascaded subsystems and consist of a current loop, a DC center point voltage loop and a DC voltage loop. The simulation shows the controller response to a sudden asymmetrical loading of the output voltage.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Voltage Source Inverter

This demonstration shows a closed-loop controlled 3-phase voltage source inverter operating as an active rectifier. The load is initially disconnected and is then connected periodically, with the controller designed to achieve unity power factor and a steady output voltage of 700 VDC from a 325 VAC, 50 Hz source.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Voltage Source Inverter with Pre-Charge

This demonstration shows a closed-loop controlled 3-phase voltage source inverter with a DC-link pre-charge. These resistors are used to limit the inrush current during the initial charging of the DC-link capacitor. The controller designed to achieve unity power factor and a steady output voltage of 700 VDC from a 325 VAC, 50 Hz source.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

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PLECS: Z-Source Inverter

This demonstration shows a current-controlled three-phase Z-source inverter used in a fuel-cell application. The unique impedance network in the Z-source inverter allows the inverter to be operated in both buck and boost modes. The model includes a continuous current controller that was tuned analytically using the K-factor method, and a modulator implemented with the PLECS State Machine block.

Tags: #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Supplies

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